FACTBOX-Progress in the U.N. Millennium Development Goals
Sept 21 (Reuters) - World leaders urged countries on Tuesday to intensify efforts to meet U.N. anti-poverty goals and African leaders said developing countries should take responsibility for their own development. The eight goals are meant to be achieved by 2015.
Following is a description of the goals and progress made so far:
REDUCING GLOBAL POVERTY AND HUNGER
Goal: to halve the number of people living below the poverty line of $1.25 a day and halve the number of people going hungry.
* The goal of cutting the poverty rate in half appears well within reach by 2015, according to a World Bank report which notes that, excluding China, the drop in poverty will be less dramatic but still make the grade.
* Of the 84 developing countries with available data, 45 have already achieved or are on schedule to meet the poverty reduction target; the rest are off track, especially in Africa.
* The world is not on track to halve hunger by 2015 mainly because of setbacks caused by record food price increases in 2008. In 1990, the share of hungry people was 20 percent; by 2005 it had dropped to 16 percent, but rose to an estimated 19 percent in 2009.
ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION
Goal: to ensure that all boys and girls get a complete primary school education.
* According to World Bank data, 50 poor countries have achieved universal primary education and seven more are on their way. Still, 38 countries, mostly in Africa, are off track and unlikely to achieve the full-enrollment target.
* Sixty-nine million children worldwide are still out of school, down from 103 million in 2000, according to UNESCO. Between 2002 and 2008 about 19.3 million were enrolled in schools in 42 of the world's poorest countries.
PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY
Goal: to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education.
* The target looks likely to be met by 2015 although Africa is lagging.
REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY
Goal: to cut by two-thirds deaths of children under age 5.
* Only about one-fourth of developing countries are on track to reach this goal.
* Each year about 8 million children die before the age of 5, largely from preventable causes. Some 38 percent of the deaths occur in the first month of life due to infection, low birth weight (because of poor maternal nutrition), or birth asphyxia. Nearly 4 million of the deaths are from preventable and treatable illnesses such as pneumonia and diarrhea.
IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH
Goal: to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate and achieve universal access to reproductive health.
* There has been a big drop in the number of women who die giving birth but the progress falls short of the goal.
* Globally, more than half of all maternal deaths were concentrated in six countries: Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan.
COMBAT AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES
Goal: to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. Achieve by 2010 universal access to treatment for HIV and AIDS. Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
* Results have been mixed. An estimated 33 million people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2008. There were an estimated 2.7 million new infections and about 2 million AIDS-related deaths in 2008.
* Africa is the region most heavily affected, accounting for over two-thirds of all people living with HIV and nearly three-quarters of AIDS-related deaths in 2008. Women are most affected, accounting for about 60 percent of those living with HIV in Africa.
ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY AND REVERSE LOSS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES
Goal: to integrate sustainable development into national policies and reverse environmental losses; reduce the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010; halve the number of people living without safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
* Expanding access to safe drinking water is on track globally in most regions.
* Between 1990 and 2008, more than 1.6 billion people in developing countries gained access to improved sources of drinking water, raising the proportion of population with access to 84 percent from 72 percent.
DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT
Goal: to address cooperation in aid, trade, debt relief, and access to technology and essential drugs.
* Aid has remained constant at about $38 billion a year since 2008, falling short of promises, according to the International Monetary Fund.
* Countries have failed to conclude the Doha Round of global trade talks despite repeated pledges to reach a deal.
* There has been progress in writing off the debts of most of the world's poorest countries. (Sources: World Bank, IMF and United Nations) (Writing by Lesley Wroughton; editing by Mohammad Zargham)
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